In this age of technology 3D printing is on the rise. And to take this technology to the next phase, Computer Numerical Control CNC machines have been created. A CNC router is one such computer-controlled cutting machine that can be used for cutting various hard materials like aluminum, wood, plastic and so on.
It maximizes the use of the material and creates the product without any human error making it aesthetically very pleasing. Which is why it used in most major industries for manufacturing their designed product.
Types of CNC Routers:
There are two types of CNC routers
Moving Table Design:
These are smaller sized CNC routers usually created for smaller sized cutting envelope of up to 30×30 cm.
Moving Gantry Design:
These are used as larger sized CNC routers with a cutting envelope above 30x30cm.
Parts used in a CNC router:
The operational parts used in the CNC router is usually the same or the popular ones in the market. However, the main constituent is the material that is used to build the machine. Depending on the type of materials that will be designed, the body could be either of steel, aluminum or even wood. Apart from the body, here are other operational parts of a CNC router
The Drive Motor and Controller:
Servo Motor: Mainly used for high-end CNC routers and are very expensive. These motors use encoders to deliver position feedback. As a result, Servo Motors provide accurate Speed, torque and also have the ability of direction control. Also, the controllers for these type of motors are quite expensive.
Stepper Motor: Stepper motors, on the other hand, are widely found since they are less expensive and can be used in home-made CNC routers. These come in various sizes and deepening on the size the power requirement is established. These motors usually operate on an open-loop and unlike Servo motors, there are no sensors that provide the location and relative motion measurements to the control. Hence, a specific controller is required for the type of motor.
The Type of Spindle used
Cartridge Spindles: These are the most common Spindles used CNC routers. These are easy to swap out and rebuild are very convenient to manufacture.
Self-Contained Spindles: These are widely used in homemade CNC routers. These can be easily mounted and they produce a good amount of power. However once fitted, the tool holder cannot be removed.
Fabricated Spindles: These are the older designed models that aren’t very popular.
Linear Guides Rails:
For ensuring load capacity and precision retention capability Linear Guide Rails are used. These are of two types
Round Guide Rails: These are preferred for vertical movements with heavy loads and less expensive. Yet these rails lack good parallelism and often require supports at ends to maintain accuracy.
Square Guide Rails: These are stiffer and more rigid and provide more accurate positioning but are expensive.
From Wood to Polyurethane Foam, a CNC router can cut and produce complex shapes with ease. Although these machines are complex to work with, with time and practice one can efficiently operate it and create usable parts in a very short period.
If you are looking to buy a CNC router, you may have a look at some of our options.